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Glass commonly used in laboratories and strong acid, alkali presentation

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Glass commonly used in laboratories and strong acid, alkali presentation

I. Classification of glassware

Glass is made into various vessels and widely used in monitoring and analysis due to its chemical stability, thermal stability, mechanical strength and transparency.

The main component of glass is silica (SiO2). Based on different contents of calcium oxide (CaO), sodium oxide (Na2O), boron oxide (B2O3), borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O) and silicate, etc., glass is divided into ordinary glass (i.e., soda lime glass), hard glass (i.e., borosilicate glass) and quartz glass.

 The specific performances of various types of glass are shown in the following table

 

Glass category

 

Main ingredient and content

 

Category and performance of the instrument to be made, and name of the major instrument

 

Ordinary glass (soda lime glass)

 

SiO2:70~75%

SiO2: 70~75%

Na:12~14%

Na: 12~14%

Ca:3~4%

Ca: 3~4%

 

Measuring vessels - not heatable. Commonly used measuring vessels include measuring cylinders, reagent bottles, volumetric flasks, burettes, colorimetric tubes, suckers, etc.

 

Hard glass (borosilicate glass)

 

SiO2:80%

SiO2: 80%

B:12~13%

B:12~13%

Na、K:4~6%

Na, K: 4~6%

 

Containers, flasks and beakers - heatable. Commonly used types include beakers, test tubes,  Erlenmeyer flasks, distilling flasks, etc.

 

Quartz glass

 

SiO2:99.5%

SiO2: 99.5%

 

 

Instruments for trace analysis and optical analysis, high temperature resistant and acid (except HF) resistant, capable of transmitting ultraviolet rays. Commonly used types include cuvettes, evaporating dishes, crucibles, etc.


II. Names and specifications of common glassware


 

S/N

 

Name

 

Specifications (volume/mL)

 

Main purposes

 

1

 

Beaker

 

50, 100, 250, 400, 500, 800, 1,000, 2,000

 

Sample dissolution and solution preparation

 

2

 

Erlenmeyer flask (conical flask)

 

100, 250, 500,1,000

 

Sampling for heat treatment and titration analysis

 

3

 

Volumetric flask

 

25, 50, 100, 200, 250, 500, 1,000 (colorless, brown)

 

Accurate preparation of standard solutions and sample dilution

 

4

 

Pipette (pipet)

 

1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 100

 

Accurate transference of different amounts of liquid

 

5

 

Burette

 

Constant volume: 25, 50, 100

 

Titration analysis

 

6

 

Reagent bottle

 

60, 120, 250, 500, 1,000 (divided into colorless or brown)

 

Storage of liquid reagents (small mouth) and solid reagents (wide-mouth)

 

7

 

Dropping bottle

 

30, 60, 120

 

Containing various types of indicators and adding reagent dropwise in small amounts

 

8

 

Standard funnel

 

Diameter/mm: 50, 60, 75, 90, 120

 

Filtering and precipitating

 

9

 

Weighing bottle

 

Bottle diameter × height/mm: φ25 × 40, φ40 × 25, φ30 × 50, φ50 × 30, φ35 × 70, φ70 × 35

 

Flat shape for distributing and drying medicines, tall shape for gravimetric analysis (Open the lid before drying samples in the oven)

 

10

 

Colorimetric tube

 

10, 25, 50, 100

 

Colorimetric analysis

 

11

 

Dryer

 

Diameter/mm: 120, 180, 210, 240

 

Placement of dried reagent and samples (not including overheated objects)

 

 III. Summary list of commonly used acids and alkalis for digestion of analyzed samples

 

 

Hydrochloric acid

 

Function

 

Main properties of acidity, reducibility and coordinating properties for some metal ions.

 

Application

 

Mainly used for the dissolution of weak acid salts (e.g. carbonate, phosphate, etc.), some basic oxides, some sulfides, metals beyond hydrogen in the potential order and alloys.

 

Shortcomings

 

Hydrochloric acid is prone to volatilization loss.

 

Nitric acid

 

Function

 

Strong oxidizing and acidic properties.

 

Application

 

Almost all metals (except platinum, gold and some other precious metals, as well as iron, aluminum and chromium) and almost all sulfides and sulfide ores can be dissolved in nitric acid, which may also destroy organics which interfere with the determination.

 

Shortcomings

 

Nitric acid is prone to decompose under acidic conditions and at high temperatures, and the nitric suboxide which often remains in the digested solution should be removed by boiling so as not to interfere with the subsequent analysis. Prone to combine with hydroxyl-containing compounds to form explosive esters, thus causing safety problems during the digestion process.

 

Sulfuric acid

 

Application

 

Similar to nitric acid but with a lower oxidizing ability. It is characterized by a high boiling point (338℃) and the ability to digest samples at a high temperature and to destroy organics in the sample.

 

Shortcomings

 

Alkaline earth metal sulfate and lead sulfate are insoluble in water.

 

Phosphoric acid

 

Function

 

Pyrophosphate and polyphosphate formed under acidic conditions or at high temperatures coordinate with certain metals, which raises the boiling point of the digestion liquid.

 

Application

 

Able to function alone or in combination with sulfuric acid. When in use, phosphoric acid can coordinate with other ions, which can eliminate interference caused by these ions.

 

Perchloric acid

 

Function

 

Concentrated and hot perchloric acid has strong dehydration and oxidation actions.

 

Application

 

Commonly used in the decomposition of stainless steel and sulfides and the destruction of organics. Able to oxidize chromium, vanadium, sulfur, etc. to corresponding high-valency oxides. Due to its high boiling point, low boiling point acid in perchloric acid can be removed by heating until it evaporates and smokes, and the remaining residue can easily decompose after adding water. For samples containing organics and reducing materials, first destroy them by adding nitric acid, then decompose them with perchloric acid or with a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid; the nitric acid should be added at any time during the oxidation process and its addition can only be stopped after all the samples have decomposed. In general, the presence of nitric acid during the use of perchloric acid can ensure safety.

 

Shortcomings

 

When using perchloric acid, note that pure perchloric acid with a content less than 85% is stable under certain conditions, but violent explosions will occur when it is heated in combination with a strong dehydrating agent (e.g. concentrated sulfuric acid), organics or some reducing agents.

 

Hydrofluoric acid

 

Function

 

Has a strong complexation on high valency elements and is strongly acidic.

 

Application

 

Generally not used alone; often mixed with sulfuric acid, nitric acid or perchloric acid for use.

 

Shortcomings

 

Corrosive to glass and pottery; platinum vessels are required for sample digestion.

 

NaOH solution

 

Function

 

Strongly alkaline.

 

Application

 

Used to decompose aluminum, aluminum alloys and certain acidic oxides. Decomposition should be carried out in vessels of silver or teflon.

 

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